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新型納米硅碳復合負極材料的設計合成、組裝及應用研究

批準號51602221 學科分類無機非金屬能量存儲材料 ( E021002 )
項目負責人張任遠 負責人職稱副教授 依托單位同濟大學
資助金額20.00
萬元
項目類別青年科學基金項目 研究期限2017 年 01 月 01 日 至
2019 年 12 月 31 日
中文主題詞納米復合材料;介孔材料;硅;鋰離子電池;負極材料
英文主題詞nanocomposite;mesoporous material;silicon;lithium-ion battery;anode material

摘要

中文摘要 鋰離子電池在便攜式電子設備、電動汽車等應用中處于主導地位,開發具有高比能、長壽命、低成本、高安全的鋰離子電池是發展的趨勢和核心。硅是目前已知具有最高理論容量的負極材料,但由于其嵌鋰時巨大的體積膨脹導致循環性能較差,限制了其實際應用。提高硅基電極的循環性能一直以來都是鋰離子電池研究領域的挑戰性工作。本項目擬在申請人前期工作基礎上,利用鎂熱還原和熔融鹽還原的方法將氧化硅-碳納米復合材料還原制備硅-碳復合材料,在硅-碳復合材料骨架中產生空隙,為硅納米顆粒在嵌鋰時的體積膨脹提供足夠的空間;通過對氧化硅-碳納米復合材料的結構設計,實現對硅-碳復合材料微觀結構的調控,控制硅基電極表面固體電解質界面膜的形成,從而解決硅基電極循環性能差的問題。此外,對所制備的硅-碳復合納米材料進行進一步的組裝,提高材料的振實密度,進而提高硅基電極的體積能量密度。為硅基電極在鋰離子電池中的進一步應用奠定物質基礎和理論基礎。
英文摘要 Lithium-ion battery has become the dominant power source for consumer portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. The key issue is to develop high energy density, long cycle life, low cost and high safety lithium-ion batteries. Silicon possesses the highest theoretical capacity of all known materials and it is abundant, inexpensive, and safe. However, silicon suffers from a large volume change during Li insertion, which leads to capacity fading and poor cycle performance. So it’s always a challenging work to improve the cycle performance of the silicon anodes. In this proposal, based on our previous work, we plan to synthesize silicon-carbon nanocomposites from silica-carbon nanocomposites via a reduction approach. The internal void space generated inside the framework during the reduction process can provide sufficient voids for the volume expansion of silicon nanoparticles during Li insertion. Through structure design of the silica-carbon nanocomposites, the nanostructure of silicon-carbon nanocomposites and the formation of the solid electrolyte interface film can be well controlled. Thus the cycle performance of the silicon anodes can be improved. Furthermore, the obtained nanostructured silicon-carbon composites will be assembled to increase the tap density and volumetric capacity. The forthcoming results and conclusions of this proposal will show a low cost synthesis approach of silicon-carbon nanocomposites with understanding the reduction reaction mechanism, lay material and theoretical foundations for the applications of silicon based anodes in lithium-ion battery.
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