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免耕稻田土壤硝化作用與功能微生物的變化及對水稻氮吸收的影響

批準號31671637 學科分類耕作學 ( C130307 )
項目負責人李成芳 負責人職稱副教授 依托單位華中農業大學
資助金額62.00
萬元
項目類別面上項目 研究期限2017 年 01 月 01 日 至
2020 年 12 月 31 日
中文主題詞免耕;硝化作用;硝化微生物;氮吸收;氮循環
英文主題詞no-tillage;nitrification;nitrifying microorganism;nitrogen uptake;nitrogen cycling

摘要

中文摘要 稻田土壤硝化作用是陸地氮循環的重要組分之一,也是影響著水稻氮吸收的潛在途徑。耕作通過改變土壤底物濃度與通氣性,影響硝化微生物與硝化作用,然而作物的生長往往掩蓋與混淆了耕作對其的影響。同時,當前研究較少從“土壤—微生物—作物”角度探討免耕稻田土壤硝化作用、硝化微生物與水稻氮吸收的內在關系。為此,本項目擬以創建5年的常規翻耕、平作免耕與廂作免耕稻田為研究對象,利用定量—聚合酶鏈式反應方法、聚合酶鏈式反應—變性梯度凝膠電泳法等研究硝化功能微生物(氨氧化細菌AOA、氨氧化古菌AOB)的豐度與結構的動態變化特征,探明其對硝化作用的相對貢獻;通過大田多時段采樣分析,研究稻田土壤硝化作用的動態變化規律;結合水稻氮吸收模型與結構方程模型,探明免耕稻田硝化作用、功能微生物與水稻氮吸收的關聯機制,揭示硝化作用對水稻氮吸收的影響。本項目旨在為免耕稻田合理施用氮肥與推廣免耕技術提供科學依據。
英文摘要 Nitrification in paddy soil is one of important components of terrestrial nitrogen cycling, which affects nitrogen uptake by rice. Tillage practices affect soil nitrifying microorganism and nitrification through altering soil carbon/nitrogen substrate and permeability. However, the crop growth masks generally the tillage effects on nitrifying microorganism and nitrification. In addition, relative few studies investigated relationships among nitrification, nitrifying microorganisms and rice nitrogen uptake under no-tillage based on the soil-microorganism-crop system. Therefore, a field experiment established 5 years ago will be conducted to study the effects of different tillage modes (conventional tillage, conventional no-tillage, and no-tillage with wide ridge) on nitrifying microorganism and nitrification in central China. Using RT-PCR and PCR-DGGE methods, our objective is to assess seasonal changes in AOA and AOB abundance and structure under different tillage modes, and also to estimate contributions of AOA and AOB to soil nitrification. Moreover, the study will discuss the seasonal changes in soil NH4+ content, NO3- content, and nitrification as affected by tillage modes. Furthermore, the study will reveal the relationships among nitrification, nitrifying microorganism and rice nitrogen uptake under different tillage modes by Structure Equation Modeling and Rice Nitrogen Uptake Modeling. Therefore, the study will provide a scientific basis on how to apply nitrogen fertilizer in rice field to develop sustainable rice production.
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